In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponnese and attempt to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. The Spartan army encouraged revolt, installing a pro-Spartan oligarchy within Athens, called the Thirty Tyrants, in 404 BCE. Which of the following did the Spartans NOT force Athens to do? Agesilaus II was one of two Spartan kings during the period of Spartan hegemony. The Peloponnesian War was not fought by individual Greek states but by two great coalitions, the Peloponnesian League and the Athenian Empire. This was a direct violation of the Thirty Years' Peace, which had (among other things) stipulated that the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League would respect each other's autonomy and internal affairs. The Thebans, Argives, Corinthians, and Athenians had rebelled during the Corinthian War from 395-386 BCE, and the Persians aided the Thebans, Corinthians, and Athenians against the Spartans. Peloponnesian war definition, a war between Athens and Sparta, 431–404 b.c., that resulted in the transfer of hegemony in Greece from Athens to Sparta. After defeating the Second Persian invasion of Greece in the year 480 BC, Athens led the coalition of Greek city-states that continued the Greco-Persian Wars with attacks on Persian territories in the Aegean and Ionia. After arriving in Sicily, Alcibiades was recalled to Athens for trial. One of these posts was near Pylos on a tiny island called Sphacteria, where the course of the first war turned in Athens's favour. Download png. A fifteen-year conflict, commonly known as the First Peloponnesian War, ensued, in which Athens fought intermittently against Sparta, Corinth, Aegina, and a number of other states. Q. Wars don't have roles. After suffering a defeat at the hands of their colony of Corcyra, a sea power that was not allied to either Sparta or Athens, Corinth began to build an allied naval force. Facing starvation and disease from the prolonged siege, Athens surrendered in 404 BC,[2] and its allies soon surrendered as well. In 403 BC, the oligarchs were overthrown and a democracy was restored by Thrasybulus. The History of the Peloponnesian War is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War, which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens). The Athenians did not act solely from altruism: rallied on by Alcibiades, the leader of the expedition, they held visions of conquering all of Sicily. [36], A symbolic peace treaty was signed by the mayors of Athens and Sparta 2,400 years after the war ended, on March 12, 1996. Both Brasidas and Cleon were killed in Athenian efforts to retake Amphipolis (see Battle of Amphipolis). After boasting that he could put an end to the affair in the Assembly, the inexperienced Cleon won a great victory at the Battle of Sphacteria. Sparta became the dominant city state for a while but lost the authority as leagues and alliances sprouted up around them. The fortification of Decelea prevented the shipment of supplies overland to Athens, and forced all supplies to be brought in by sea at increased expense. [3] Tissaphernes also helped fund the Peloponnesian fleet. Upon landing in Sicily, several cities immediately joined the Athenian cause. Despite all this, not all Athenian men had their rights removed. Sparta was later humbled by Thebes at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC, but the rivalry between Athens and Sparta was brought to an end a few decades later when Philip II of Macedon conquered all of Greece except Sparta, which was later subjugated by Philip's son Alexander in 331 BC. With its victory at Mantinea, Sparta pulled itself back from the brink of utter defeat, and re-established its hegemony throughout the Peloponnese. Athens struggled to recover from the upheaval caused by the Thirty Tyrants in the years that followed. The Corcyra never joined the Athenian League or the Spartans, w… Corinth and Syracuse were slow to bring their fleets into the Aegean, and Sparta's other allies were also slow to furnish troops or ships. Its empire began as a small group of city-states, called the Delian League — from the island of Delos, on wh… At the Battle of Sybota, a small contingent of Athenian ships played a critical role in preventing a Corinthian fleet from capturing Corcyra. Sparta was busy dealing with the aftermath of an earthquake and a helot revolt. The Peloponnesian War is firstly a historical account of what happened in the war between the Peloponnesian League and the Delian League. Alcibiades, while condemned as a traitor, still carried weight in Athens. [4][5] The war also wrought subtler changes to Greek society; the conflict between democratic Athens and oligarchic Sparta, each of which supported friendly political factions within other states, made war a common occurrence in the Greek world. Causes of the Peloponnesian War Athens and Sparta formed . Citizens reacted against Athens’ defeat, blaming democratic politicians, such as Cleon and Cleophon. Thus, the two powers were relatively unable to fight decisive battles. The Spartans summoned forces from all of their allies, including Athens, to help them suppress the revolt. In him, Cyrus found a man who was willing to help him become king, just as Lysander himself hoped to become absolute ruler of Greece by the aid of the Persian prince. The Lacedaemonians, with their neighbors the Tegeans, faced the combined armies of Argos, Athens, Mantinea, and Arcadia. The Peloponnesian War was a war between two leading city- states in ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta which lasted from 431-404 bce. As the preeminent Athenian historian, Thucydides, wrote in his influential History of the Peloponnesian War, "The growth of the power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon, made war inevitable. by A.H. Clough. Athens sent out a sizable contingent (4,000 hoplites), but upon its arrival, this force was dismissed by the Spartans, while those of all the other allies were permitted to remain. The Corinthians, the Spartans, and others in the Peloponnesian League sent more reinforcements to Syracuse, in the hopes of driving off the Athenians; but instead of withdrawing, the Athenians sent another hundred ships and another 5,000 troops to Sicily. The Peloponnesian War was a war fought in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta—the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece at the time (431 to 405 B.C.E.). It was alleged that the Megarians had desecrated the Hiera Orgas. As the preeminent Athenian historian, Thucydides, wrote in his influential History of the Peloponnesian War, "The growth of the power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon, made war inevitable." social studies. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing … The Peloponnesian War was between the Athenian empire and the Peloponnesian League, which Athens lost and lost its empire. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponneseand attempt to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. Thucydides traces the development of Athenian power through the growth of the Athenian empire in the years 479 BC to 432 BC in book one of the History (1.89–118). Thucydides was dispatched with a force which arrived too late to stop Brasidas capturing Amphipolis; Thucydides was exiled for this, and, as a result, had the conversations with both sides of the war which inspired him to record its history. After the death of Pericles, the Athenians turned somewhat against his conservative, defensive strategy and to the more aggressive strategy of bringing the war to Sparta and its allies. Nothing was the same after the war, and Athens was never to be as powerful. Lysander, the Spartan admiral who commanded the Spartan fleet at Aegospotami in 405 BCE, helped to organize the Thirty Tyrants as a government for the 13 months they maintained power. The two immensely powerful city states had been at each other’s throats for years in the first Peloponnesian war. Athens proceeded to bring under its control all of Greece except for Sparta and its allies, ushering in a period which is known to history as the Athenian Empire. The Peloponnesian War reshaped the Ancient Greek world. Fearing that he would be unjustly condemned, Alcibiades defected to Sparta and Nicias was placed in charge of the mission. Thus, Cyrus put all his means at the disposal of Lysander in the Peloponnesian War. This debate was attended by members of the league and an uninvited delegation from Athens, which also asked to speak, and became the scene of a debate between the Athenians and the Corinthians. The Peloponnesian War changed Greece in every way. The Athenians felt obliged to assist their ally. [22] Undeterred, a majority of the Spartan assembly voted to declare that the Athenians had broken the peace, essentially declaring war.[23]. He would never again lead Athenians in battle. The FIRST phase of Peloponnesian War was uneventful and shorter than the second because... answer choices . The hostages gave the Athenians a bargaining chip. Class, Faction and Policy 403–386 B.C., New York 2014, p. 80. This is completely easy in terms of researching before you actually start writing your essay based on those The Peloponnesian War ideas. [10] According to Thucydides, although the Spartans took no action at this time, they "secretly felt aggrieved". [16], The more immediate events that led to war involved Athens and Corinth. After additional setbacks, Nicias seemed to agree to a retreat until a bad omen, in the form of a lunar eclipse, delayed any withdrawal. Following the defeat of the Athenians in Sicily, it was widely believed that the end of the Athenian Empire was at hand. The people of Syracuse were ethnically Dorian (as were the Spartans), while the Athenians, and their ally in Sicilia, were Ionian. Which option accurately describes the role of trade during the Age of Discovery? The Battle of Mantinea was the largest land battle fought within Greece during the Peloponnesian War. [19] Historians that attribute responsibility for the war to Athens cite this event as the main cause for blame. Their treasury was nearly empty, its docks were depleted, and many of the Athenian youth were dead or imprisoned in a foreign land. In the following years their respective blocs observed an uneasy peace. The democratic alliance was broken up, and most of its members were reincorporated into the Peloponnesian League. The destruction of Athens's fleet in the Battle of Aegospotami effectively ended the war, and Athens surrendered in the following year. The fear of plague was so widespread that the Spartan invasion of Attica was abandoned, their troops being unwilling to risk contact with the diseased enemy. The Peloponnesian War was an internal conflict that saw the more powerful of the Greek states rise up against one another to become a full blown conflict. They were supported in this by Argos, a powerful state within the Peloponnese that had remained independent of Lacedaemon. He prevented the Athenian fleet from attacking Athens; instead, he helped restore democracy by more subtle pressure. Corinth and Thebes demanded that Athens should be destroyed and all its citizens should be enslaved, but Sparta refused. A form of power structure in which a small group of people hold all power and influence in a state. An oligarchical revolution occurred in Athens, in which a group of 400 seized power. "The winter following Tissaphernes put Iasus in a state of defence, and passing on to Miletus distributed a month's pay to all the ships as he had promised at Lacedaemon, at the rate of an Attic drachma a day for each man." The Peloponnesian war lasted 27 years, and it occurred for many different reasons. Demosthenes, however, outmanoeuvred the Spartans in the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC and trapped a group of Spartan soldiers on Sphacteria as he waited for them to surrender. The war lasted more than 20 years. Its empire began as a small group of city-states, called the Delian League – from the island of Delos, on which they kept their treasury – that came together to ensure that the Greco-Persian Wars were truly over. However, it marked the demise of Athenian naval and political hegemony throughout the Mediterranean. During the Thirty Tyrants’ rule, five percent of the Athenian population was killed, private property was confiscated, and democratic supporters were exiled. The Syracusans sent their fleet to the Peloponnesians, and the Persians decided to support the Spartans with money and ships. This war shifted power from Athens to Sparta, making Sparta the most powerful city-state in the region. 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